Gino Severini was an Italian painter who synthesized the styles of Futurism and Cubism. Severini began his painting career in 1900 as a student of Giacomo Balla, an Italian pointillist painter who later became a prominent Futurist. Stimulated by Balla’s account of the new painting in France, Severini moved to Paris in 1906 and met leading members of the French avant-garde, such as the Cubist painters Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso and the writer Guillaume Apollinaire. Severini continued to work in the pointillist manner—an approach that entailed applying dots of contrasting colours according to principles of optical science—until 1910, when he signed the Futurist painters’ manifesto.
The Futurists wanted to revitalize Italian art (and, as a consequence, all of Italian culture) by depicting the speed and dynamism of modern life. Severini shared this artistic interest, but his work did not contain the political overtones typical of Futurism. Whereas Futurists typically painted moving cars or machines, Severini usually portrayed the human figure as the source of energetic motion in his paintings. He was especially fond of painting nightclub scenes in which he evoked the sensations of movement and sound by filling the picture with rhythmic forms and cheerful, flickering colours. In Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin (1912), he retained the nightlife theme but incorporated the Cubist technique of collage (real sequins are fixed to the dancers’ dresses) and such nonsensical elements as a realistic nude riding a pair of scissors. Only briefly, in wartime works such as Red Cross Train Passing a Village (1914), did Severini paint subjects that conformed to the Futurist glorification of war and mechanized power. Over the next few years, he turned increasingly to an idiosyncratic form of Cubism that retained decorative elements of pointillism and Futurism, as seen in the abstract painting Spherical Expansion of Light (Centrifugal) (1914).
About 1916 Severini embraced a more rigorous and formal approach to composition; instead of deconstructing forms, he wanted to bring geometric order to his paintings. His works from this period were usually still lifes executed in a Synthetic Cubist manner, which entailed constructing a composition out of fragments of objects. In portraits such as Maternity (1916), he also began to experiment with a Neoclassical figurative style, a conservative approach that he embraced more fully in the 1920s. Severini published a book, Du cubisme au classicisme (1921; “From Cubism to Classicism”), in which he discussed his theories about the rules of composition and proportion. Later in his career he created many decorative panels, frescoes, and mosaics, and he became involved in set and costume design for the theatre.
Art Institute of Chicago
Dallas Museum of Art, Texas
Guggenheim Museum, New York
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington D.C.
Ball State Museum of Art, Indiana
Beaverbrook Art Gallery, New Brunswick
Brauer Museum of Art at Valparaiso University, Indiana
Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio
Currier Gallery of Art, New Hampshire
Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, London
Fondation de l'Hermitage, Lausanne, Switzerland
Gallerie di Palazzo Leoni Montanari, Vicenza, Italy
Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Turin
Haifa Museum, Haifa, Israel
Harvard University Art Museums, Massachusetts
Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minnesota
Museo di Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Trento, Italy
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Narodna Galerija, Ljubljana, Slovenia
North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh
Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome
Philadelphia Museum of Art
Rijksmuseum Twenthe, Enschede, Netherlands
Stedelijk Museum of Modern Art, Amsterdam
Studio Esseci, Italy
Tate Gallery, London
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid
Walker Art Center, Minnesota